Louisa May Alcott was born on November 29, 1832, in Germantown, Pennsylvania. When she was almost 2 years old, Louisa's family moved to Massachusetts, the state where she lived the bulk of her life. The family moved many times over the years, usually back and forth between Boston and Concord (Mass.). Some notable places Louisa lived were "Fruitlands" in Harvard, Massachusetts; "Hillside" in Concord; and "Orchard House," also in Concord. "Fruitlands" was the site of her father's attempt at Utopian living, which she wrote about in Transcendental Wild Oats, thirty years later in 1873. Louisa's childhood at "Hillside" (later renamed "Wayside" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, when he lived there) served as the basis for the action in her most popular novel, Little Women, which she wrote as an adult living in "Orchard House." Interestingly, these latter two houses were located next door to each other, with a walking path through the woods between. They are both still standing and open for tours in Concord. She was a versatile writer who started at an early age. At the encouragement of her father, she kept a diary as a child--which probably helped her to discover her love and talent for writing and surely provided ideas later for her various plots and characters. As a teenager, Louisa wrote several plays, poems, and short stories. She achieved publication for the first time at age nineteen, with a poem entitled "Sunlight" (1851), which she wrote under the pseudonym, "Flora Fairfield". The title of Ms. Alcott's first published short story was "The Rival Painters: A Tale of Rome" (1852), and her first published book was Flower Fables (1854), a collection of short fairy-tale stories and poems which she had originally created to entertain Ralph Waldo Emerson's daughter Ellen. Louisa May Alcott wrote her first novel, The Inheritance, at age seventeen, but it went unpublished for nearly 150 years until 1997, after two researchers (Joel Myerson and Daniel Shealy) stumbled across the handwritten manuscript in the Houghton Library at Harvard University . Of course, Ms. Alcott is best known for a different novel, Little Women, which she wrote in two parts. The first volume, subtitled Meg, Jo, Beth, and Amy, was published in 1868, and the second volume, alternately titled Good Wives, was published in 1869. Like Jo in Little Women, Louisa also wrote many "blood and thunder" tales, which were published in popular periodicals of the day.
DMADV a. k. a. DFSS The DMADV project methodology, also known asÂ DFSSÂ (â€œDesignÂ ForÂ SixÂ Sigmaâ€),Â features five phases: * DefineÂ design goals that are consistent with customer demands and the enterprise strategy. * MeasureÂ and identify CTQs (characteristics that areÂ CriticalÂ ToÂ Quality), product capabilities, production process capability, and risks. * AnalyzeÂ to develop and design alternatives, create a high-level design and evaluate design capability to select the best design. * DesignÂ details, optimize the design, and plan for design verification.This phase may require simulations. * VerifyÂ the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production process and hand it over to the process owner(s). In order to scope out a potential project its imperative one understands the Six Sigma DMAIC requirements. A great example of project scoping is similar to a physician diagnosing a patient with a specific illness. Effective project scoping is also comparable to a physician treating a patient with a specific illness, attention to detail is important when diagnosing a patient (Lynch, Bertolino, Cloutier, 2003).The define phase of a six sigma project is one of the most vital phases. The define phase can have the most impact on the success of the project. The DMAIC Six Sigma methodology should be used when a product or process is currently in place, but for some reason does not meet the customer specification or is not performing effectively, The DMADV methodology should be used when a new product or process is being introduced, when a process does not exist, or has reached entitlement. If a defect exists, one should opt toward using the DMAIC methodology to complete a six sigma project.Due to the nature of this process, identifying the customer specifications, designing and optimizing solutions, implementing the new process, product or service, a DMADV project can be more complex and be potentially longer in duration. Some Black Belts may be tempted to defer to DMADV when the process to be improved is not documented. Consider whether the work, process, or service is occurring today. If it is, then one would perhaps have a project that should begin as a DMAIC project. The process should then be documented as one of the early steps in the effort toward reducing defect variation.Another common misstep occurs when projects are identified as DMADV and the appropriate tools are not used. The DMADV methodology leverages unique tools to capture the Voice of the Customer and translate to CTQs, which is an acronym for â€œCritical to Qualityâ€ and then to Functional Design Requirements. These tools include Kano Analysis, Quality Function Deployment, and Pugh Matrix. Leveraging these tools during a DMADV project helps ensure that the effort to create a product, process, or service will deliver the most important customer requirements. ConclusionSix Sigma is one quality system that has outlasted other quality management systems (Brinlee, n. d. ). There are dozens of tools and software programs available; however, there are basics that all should know. Depending on ones training as a green or black belt, the six sigma tools used can vary. Most all six sigma software programs are designed to allow the computer to calculate to decrease the potential of human error. There are two basic classifications of six sigma tools: process optimization tools and statistical analysis tools (Brinlee, n. d. ).Analysis: After you describe your research finding and include references, please offer your analysis of the information here. By beginning the paragraph with a bolded word, it will be much more apparent to the Evaluator that this is where they will find your analysis of the information rather than it appearing as if it is part of the research summary. Benefits of Six Sigma It is clear that many companies have capitalized on the application of Six Sigma to there business model. If we look deeper into the appeal of Six Sigma, past the historical quantitative gains, we will find several benefits that companies find attractive. Pande, 2000) â€œSix Sigma, 1. â€œGenerates sustained successâ€ â€“ The only way to sustain a high level of growth is to continually innovate and remake the organization. A Six Sigma process creates the skills and culture to achieve this continuous process improvement cycle. 2. â€œSets a performance goal for everyoneâ€ â€“ a company is made up of multiple departments with different tasks and objectives. Six Sigma provides a common objective for all departments to be as close to perfect as possible. The idea is that if you understand the customerâ€™s requirements, then you can measure for defects. . â€œEnhances Customer Valueâ€ â€“ The focus of Six Sigma is understanding what the customer requirements are and delivering a product or service within those requirements. 4. â€œIncreases the rate of improvementâ€ â€“ Six Sigma helps a company stay on top of itâ€™s improvement efforts by constantly updating requirements and identifying defects before they happen. 5. â€œPromotes Learningâ€ â€“ Six sigma brings experts together with novices to manage the process and teach the Six Sigma way of business. Companies that use Six Sigma view it as learning tool that is critical to their success. 6. Executes strategic changeâ€ â€“ Six Sigma gives you a better understanding of your companies processes. The philosophy is tied back to the companies goals so when itâ€™s time for change there is a higher probability of success. â€ (Pande, 2000) Six Sigma Negatives Six Sigma is has not been successful for every company. Critics point to several factors as negatives of Six Sigma. Some point to the fact that Six Sigma is not an original philosophy but rather a re-packaging of existing ideas. Additionally, critics point out the use of consultants and the need for highly trained specialist to implement and manage the process can be very expensive.Another criticism is that the 3. 4 per 1 million measurement does not fit all situations. An airport may need a higher standard than say the post office. It has been said that applying Six Sigma rigorously will result in in a workplace environment that is rigid and stifles creativity, innovation, and invention. However, proponents will say that this outcome is a result of missing key parts of a successful program. The goals of the program must be tied to the goals of the company and the processes in place must directly tie to the customers needs. ImplementationSix Sigma programs are deployed from the Top down and implemented from the bottom up. (Cariera and Trudell, 2006) You must have upper managements buy-in and full support. This support must be communicated effectively through the organization. Upper management must be willing to invest in training for their employees and willing to embrace the changes that will come out of the initiative. Although Six Sigma can involve some complex statistical theories and measurement tools, the barriers to successful implementations usually come from â€œbehavioralâ€ resistance rather than â€œtechnicalâ€ issues. Kumar, 2006) The following are what Kumar considers â€œFundamental rules for significant changeâ€: â€¢ Always include affected individuals in both planning and implementing improvements. â€¢ Provide sufficient time for employees to change. â€¢ Confine improvements to only those changes essential to remove the identified root cause(s). â€¢ Respect an individualâ€™s perceptions by listening and responding to his/her concerns. â€¢ Ensure leadership participation in the program. â€¢ Provide timely feedback to affected individuals. These are all key points to implementing Six Sigma, however to a Six Sigma criticâ€™s point, there is nothing really new here.This is very similar to many other management and quality philosophies. Regardless of what name you give it, these fundamentals are imperative for instituting positive change in an organization. Perhaps by applying these fundamentals under a recognized program such as Six Sigma, there will be a better chance for success. ISO 9000 Naturally this subheading â€œFinding Number 2â€ would actually be changed to describe the second research finding. Then you would describe what you found and be sure to include quotes or paraphrases from your research.After each of those references, be sure to include a correct in-text citation (APA) format. Keep in mind that this task requires you to reference 8 sources in your paper (and include an accompanying Reference page). Analysis: After you describe your research finding and include references, please offer your analysis of the information here. By beginning the paragraph with a bolded word, it will be much more apparent to the Evaluator that this is where they will find your analysis of the information rather than it appearing as if it is part of the research summary. Benefits of ISOThe ISO was started in 1947 when 25 countries met in London to define industry-wide standardization for the manufacture and supply of products, testing/analysis and technology used in these fields, that begins a foundation of the trade and transfer of technology. A) While leveling the playing field so countries can easily trade overseas easier, companies are free to compete in more worldwide markets. This allows companies access to territories previously adrnonished for political reasons (American companies doing business in Vietnam, for example), while bridging the needs of business into the new millennium.B) At its core the ISO in conjunction with organizations the WTO, promotes a global trading systern strength. The WTO instituted the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)' which includes a Code of Good practice for the Preparation, Adoption and Application of Standards: simply-put, the Code recognizes the efficient improvement of production in international trade AND, encourages standardizing bodies to use ihem for the standards they develop. C) Another advantage is product reliability from other countries.Think about it, in terms of quality and safety you can rest easier knowing that the product quality will be the same or better than a competing US brand. Which is generally, not good. But it encourages competition, promotes more trade opens up our thinking to new, sometimes better merchandise. Look at the inventory from Ikea and World Market and see how those marketplaces have tested throughout the country? D) With regard to our govemment, where would we be without International Standards for health, safety and environmental legislation?International Standards can also â€˜&ame' political trade agreements with this body of knowledge. E) I believe that, without certain Standardizations our commerce would erswl. Like the sizes of screw-threads for chairs in classrooms, telcom technology, the size of 2Ã—4's for use overseas, the quality of steel-beams to erect a building. Pros and cons of ISO ISO 9000 is a set of standards governing documentation of a quality program. ISO 9000 is an overview document which gives guidelines for selection and use of the other standards. It is also used internationally by business to provide an outline of quality assurance.The ISO 9000 contains five document which are the 9001 9002 9003 9004 the ISO 9001 deals with aspects of a quality program for businesses that design, produce, install and service products. The ISO 9002 deals with the same aspects as the ISO 9001, the ISO 9003 is the most limited in scope and addresses only the production process. ISO 9004 contains guidelines for interpreting the other standards. The steps for businesses to take in order to make sure they are registered with ISO 9000 standards are that the quality management system in the company or business must be fully approved and meet the required standard the ISO 9000 need.They must also be able to look after and put in order all the companies internally audits. Organisations should seek ISO 9000 accreditation due to some advantages it provides for the company which are it helps the company improve its customer service and increases the satisfaction of customers. When business or organisations seek ISO documentation it helps the focus on satisfying customers and providing quality service for customers. It helps the company to ensure that their product when is reached the final stage is of good quality which helps to increase customer satisfaction or make customer happy with the final product.Another reason why a company should also seek ISO 9000 accreditation is due to the fact that it would be easier for business or organisation to get supplier if there in need of one. Supplier would be willing to associate themselves with companies with the ISO documentation who are in looking for or in a need of suppliers. The ISO accreditation requires an organisation to analyse and document its actions, which is important in any event for implementing continuous improvement for the staff who get involved. The rules required in ISO accreditation standards provide businesses to start pursuing TQM programs.Organisations that register their company with the ISO 9000 accreditation give there company a good eye with public as it increases their marketability as the public feel they have their best interest at heart by ensuring they offer good quality products to them and this is an advantage to the company as it increases their customer loyalty base and brings in new customers. It would also help organisations against their competitors as a business or company seeking ISO 9000 accreditation increases their advantages over their competitors and this might make them draw some of their competitorsâ€™ customers.ISO 9000 registration helps companies look attractive by inviting business owners and investors to combine or deal in business with them. It gives companies or businesses who have registered with ISO 9000 accreditation secure their finances with other businesses. Aside from all this advantages towards companies who seek ISO 9000 accreditation there are also disadvantages to this documentation. One of them would be its very expensive to organisations who seek the ISO 9000 accreditation.Some companies who fully be able continuously pay the funds to register their companies especially companies that are not large. The steps to register your business or company are very expensive and so many companies might be able to afford it. Apart from the business being expensive another disadvantage is the amount or period the process takes to register. The process usually takes many months or over a year to complete the registration and all the necessary documentation it needs to finally complete it.This might make business fed up due to amount of time itâ€™s taken them to achieve this documentation and the amount of time they have put in order to complete it to the final audit. Aside from it also being expensive thereâ€™s a lot of paper work and documentation involved in registering with the ISO 9000 accreditation and this paper work take a lot of the company time. This makes the business focus on the paper work rather than being able to balance the paper work or other business matters the company needs to adhere.Some companies might get carried away with the documentation forgetting they need to attend to other business matter and this might make them lose important business running. Total Quality Management (TQM) Naturally this subheading â€œFinding Number 3â€ would actually be changed to describe the third research finding. Then you would describe what you found and be sure to include quotes or paraphrases from your research. After each of those references, be sure to include a correct in-text citation (APA) format.Keep in mind that this task requires you to reference 8 sources in your paper (and include an accompanying Reference page). If you have more than 3 main points, please feel free to add them. Follow the same format for consistency. Analysis: After you describe your research finding and include references, please offer your analysis of the information here. By beginning the paragraph with a bolded word, it will be much more apparent to the Evaluator that this is where they will find your analysis of the information rather than it appearing as if it is part of the research summary.Recommendations This will be the last section of the body of your paper in which you will provide your audience (your companyâ€™s management) with your recommendations for action. Again, you could begin by replacing this text with an appropriate introduction. The discussion here should also justify the logic used to arrive at the particular recommendations. For example: Recommendation: This would be your first recommendation. You could bold it as I have here.Then you should explain or describe the recommendation more fully as well as why you feel this will be beneficial to the company. You will then follow this same format for the remaining recommendations. You must have at least three recommendations for the company. Conclusion Task instruction: Prepare a business report based on your research findings that includes a conclusion that will: a. Emphasize the importance of the three research findings; b. Summarize the benefits of your recommendations. . This task can generally be done in 1-2 paragraphs.